Exodus 12:2 This month shall be unto you the Beginning of Months: it shall be the "First Month Of The Year" to you.This usually occurs before the end of the biblical 12th month but sometimes the barley does not reach the stage of Aviv until after the 12th month. In this case an extra month, a 13th month, is added to the calendar and this is called a Leap Year.
Leviticus 23:5-6 (5) In the fourteenth day of the "First Month at Even is YAHWEH’s Passover." (6) And on the Fifteenth Day of the same month is the Feast Of Unleavened Bread unto YAHWEH: seven days ye must eat unleavened bread.
Deuteronomy 16:8 "SIX DAYS" thou shalt eat unleavened bread: (Made from the New Harvest) and on the Seventh Day shall be a Solemn Assembly to YHWH thy God: thou shalt do no work therein:
Deuteronomy 16:1 commands: Observe the "Month of Aviv, and keep the Passover" unto YAHWEH thy God: for in the Month of Aviv YAHWEH thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by Night.What is Aviv?
Exodus 23:15 commands: "You will keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread; seven days you will eat unleavened bread, as I have commanded you, at the time of the month of the Aviv, because in it you went out of Egypt."
Exodus 34:18 commands: "You will keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread; seven days you will eat unleavened bread, as have I commanded you, at the time of the month of the Aviv, because in the month of the Aviv you went out of Egypt."
"And the flax and the barley were smitten, because the barley was Aviv and the flax was Giv'ol. And the wheat and the spelt were not smitten because they were dark (Afilot)."The above passage relates that the barley crops were destroyed by the hail while the wheat and spelt were not damaged. To understand the reason for this we must look at how grain develops. When grains are early in their development they are flexible and have a dark green color. As they become ripe they take on a light yellowish hue and become more brittle. The reason that the barley was destroyed and the wheat was not is that the barley had reached the stage in its development called Aviv and as a result had become brittle enough to be damaged by the hail. In contrast, the wheat and spelt were still early enough in their development, at a stage when they were flexible and not susceptible to being damaged by hail. The description of the wheat and spelt as "dark" (Afilot) indicates that they were still in the stage when they were deep green and had not yet begun to lighten into the light yellowish hue which characterizes ripe grains. In contrast, the barley had reached the stage of Aviv at which time it was no longer "dark" and at this point it probably had begun to develop golden streaks.
"When you come to the land which I give you, and harvest its harvest, you will bring the sheaf of the beginning of your harvest to the priest. And he will wave the sheaf before YHWH so you will be accepted; on the morrow after the Sabbath the priest will wave it."From this it is clear that the barley, which was Aviv at the beginning of the month, has become harvest-ready 15-21 days later (i.e by the Sunday during Passover).
"And you shall count from the morrow after the Sabbath, from the day you bring the sheaf of waving; they will be seven complete weeks."Therefore, the "sickle commences on the standing grain 2-3 weeks after the beginning of the first month. If the barley is not developed enough so that it will be ready for the sickle 2-3 weeks later, then the first month can not begin and we must wait till the following month.
"And when you bring a first-fruit offering to YHWH; you shall bring your first-fruit offering as Aviv parched in fire or crushed Carmel" (Carmel is grain which has hardened beyond Aviv to the point where it can be "crushed" or "coarsely ground").All of the above passages have been translated directly from the Hebrew and it is worth noting that the King James translators seem to have only understood the various Hebrew agricultural terms very poorly. In Lev 2:14 they translated Carmel as "full ears" and "Aviv" as "green ears" whereas in Lev 23:14 they translated Carmel as "green ears"!
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